Christian martyrs of the Roman Empire

Previously: Revelation 6, the Christian martyrs

Diocletian’s persecution of the Christians was not the first of the Roman Empire. Nero had begun the first (64 – 68 ad),
in which Paul and Peter had been killed. In Nero’s persecution,
Christians were tied onto tall posts, wrapped in flammable materials
and doused with oil, and set on fire. Nero used these living torches to
light the perverse entertainments he hosted in his gardens. The Roman
historian Tacitus (Annals and Histories), not a Christian by any means, stated that an immense multitude were put to death under Nero.

The second persecution was under Domitian (95 – 96 ad), and it was because of this persecution that John found himself exiled to Patmos. The third was under Trajan (106 – 107 ad) in which Ignatius, the bishop of Antioch and a famous church father, was martyred. The fourth was under righteous Marcus Aurelius (166 – 177 ad),
who persecuted the Christians because he believed the tales their
enemies spread about them, that they practiced cannibalism in their
secret rites (Communion, eating the body and blood of the Lord Jesus).
In this persecution, Polycarp, the disciple of John, was martyred.

The fifth persecution was under Severus (200 – 213 ad), and the sixth was under Maximinius (235 – 237 ad). But these persecutions were not as severe as the seventh under Decius (249 – 251 ad).
That persecution was so bad, that Guerber writes of it, “Such was the
severity used during the two years of this persecution, that the Romans
fancied that all the Christians had been killed, and that their
religion would never be heard of again.”

The eighth persecution was under Valerian (257 – 260 ad), and the ninth was under Aurelian (273 ad).
Diocletian’s persecution was the tenth official persecution of the
Roman Empire. Guerber writes of it that it was “the worst and bloodiest
that had yet been known” of the Christian persecutions (The Story of the Romans by H. A. Guerber, pages 174 and 178). Diocletian’s persecution completely wiped out Christianity in Britain, for example.

Of Diocletian’s persecution, John Foxe writes:

persecution became general in all the Roman provinces, but more
particularly in the east; and as it lasted ten years, it is impossible
to ascertain the numbers martyred, or to enumerate the various modes of
martyrdom. Racks, scourges, swords, daggers, crosses, poison, and
famine, were made use of in various parts to dispatch the Christians;
and invention was exhausted to devise tortures against such as had no
crime, but thinking differently from the votaries of superstition. A
city of Phrygia, consisting entirely of Christians, was burnt, and all
the inhabitants perished in the flames. Tired with slaughter, at
length, several governors of provinces represented to the imperial
court, the impropriety of such conduct. Hence many were respited from
execution, but, though they were not put to death, as much as possible
was done to render their lives miserable, many of them having their
ears cut off, their noses slit, their right eyes put out, their limbs
rendered useless by dreadful dislocations, and their flesh seared in
conspicuous places with red-hot irons.
Foxe’s Book of Martyrs, Chapter II, Ten Primitive Persecutions

martyrs were made in the tenth persecution under Diocletian, than in
all the nine others which came before it combined. More than Nero’s, in
which Tacitus stated that an immense number were put to death. More
than Decius’, in which the Romans fancied that all the Christians had
been killed and would never be heard from again. Thus does the seal of the Christian martyrs belong to 303 – 313 ad, the Christian persecution of Diocletian.

For the story of the Christian martyrs of the Roman Empire, see Eusebius, Foxe’s Book of Martyrs, and the Catholic Encyclopedia,
all of which agree as to the severity of the persecutions. Of note is
that most secular sources discount the Roman Christian persecutions
(such as Gibbon, who was an ardent unbeliever, Wikipedia, and the Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers).
It is in their interest to do so. Wikipedia even states, “Claims of
martyrdom were exaggerated by the early Church Fathers in order to gain
converts.” There is no citation for this statement, and frankly, I can
think of nothing less convincing than the apologetic, “Become a
Christian and you too can die a horrible death of privation and

To be continued …

Update: continued in Revelation 6, the great earthquake

One thought on “Christian martyrs of the Roman Empire

  1. Your last statement is absolutely the truth! I find it so offensive to read that there was wide exaggeration of the persecution of Christians. There is no point in it whatsoever except to offend those who are the heirs in the faith. It will be wonderful when we are with our Savior in the new heaven and earth to know that the truth will be fully known and these heroes of the faith will be known to us. There will be no “wisdom of the world” to hide it.

    Thanks for your blog, Christine, it is a refreshing place for what is true and beautiful.


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